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SWAMP/CWT: Guidance Compendium for Watershed Monitoring and Assessment

SWAMP – Clean Water Team Citizen Monitoring Program

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GUIDANCE COMPENDIUM FOR WATERSHED MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT


Note: Monitoring Methods and Protocols described below are not endorsed specifically nor generally by the State Water Board or the SWAMP Program.


Table of Contents

Section 1.0 Introduction and Overview
Section 2.0 Field Procedures (e.g., sample collection)
Section 3.0 “Grab Samples” - Measurements Taken at One Point in a Water Body or in a Container (including Water Quality Fact Sheets)
Section 4.0 Stream Measurements (e.g., flow)
Section 5.0 Measurements Taken in a Watershed (e.g., rain)
Section 6.0 Geographic Information for Watershed Use (GIS & GPS)
Section 7.0 Programmatic Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA, QC & QAPP)
Section 8.0 Data Quality Management (DQM)
Section 9.0 Volunteer & Staff Role-Specific DQM Materials
Appendices Glossary and Web Links (Spanish)
Notes About the Contents

Section 1.0 - Introduction and Overview

1.1 Introduction
  1.1.1 How to Use the Compendium (Information Paper about this set of ‘how-to’ manuals)
  1.1.2 Regulatory Framework: Water and Environmental Legislation
    1.1.2a Introduction to the Clean Water Act
      1.1.2.a.1 Watershed Watchdog - Citizen Useage of the Clean Water Act
    1.1.2b Introduction to the Waterboards
    1.1.2c Primer on Stream and River Protection
  1.1.3 The Universe of Citizen Monitoring
    1.1.3.1 A Volunteer Monitoring Code of Ethics
    1.1.3.2 Introduction to the Clean Water Team and Citizen Monitoring in California
    1.1.3.3 Volunteer Monitoring National Facilitation Project [external link]
    1.1.3.4 Volunteer Monitoring Related Research [external link]
    1.1.3.5 Volunteer Monitoring in the San Francisco Bay
    1.1.3.6 Developing Relationships Between Public Agencies and Volunteer Monitors
    1.1.3.7 Monitoring Consortiums: A Cost Effective Means to Enhance Watershed Data Collection
    1.1.3.8 Broadening Participation in Biological Monitoring Projects
    1.1.3.8a Citizen Bioassessment Monitoring- Successes & Challenges
    1.1.3.8b Example of a Citizen Monitoring Bioassessment Program- Friends of Deer Creek
    1.1.3.8c Vernal Pool Planning at a Local Level Using Citizen Scientists
    1.1.3.9 The Role of Citizen Based Monitoring Programs in Creating a Healthy Watershed
    1.1.3.9a One Day Snapshot Finds Hotspots
  1.1.4 Introduction to Data Quality
    1.1.4a Sound Science
    1.1.4.1 What are Good Data?
    1.1.4.2 The Clean Water Team (CWT) Data Quality Management System
    1.1.4.3 Basic Concepts in Data Quality
    1.1.4.4 Data Quality - Tips for getting it, keeping it
    1.1.4.5 The Mystery of Quality Assurance
  1.1.5 Watershed Characterization Strategies and Monitoring Goals
    1.1.5.5a Watershed Characterization Strategies and Monitoring Goals
  1.1.6 Collaborating with Citizen Monitoring and Watershed Stewardship Organizations (Workshops were held April and May 2013)
    Introduction
    1.1.6a Clean Water Team Presentation
    1.1.6b How To Start a Collaboration
    1.1.6c Collaborative Projects
    1.1.6d Developing Cooperative Monitoring Projects
    1.1.6e Equipment, Protocol, and Data Management
1.2 Making Citizen Monitoring Happen
1.2a Beginning a Citizen Monitoring Program
1.2b Getting Started in Volunteer Monitoring
1.2c Volunteer Water Monitoring: A Guide For State Managers
  1.2.1 Infrastructure
- Starting a Monitoring Group
- Designing Your Monitoring Strategy: Basic Questions & Resources to Help Guide You - CSREES, 2003
  (Cooperative State Research, Extension and Education Service) [external link]
- Riparian Station How-To Manual - San Francisco Estuary Institute (SFEI) 1996
    1.2.1a Get Ready Get Set - Starting a Non-Profit Organization
    1.2.1b En Sus Marcas Listos: Lo Que Usted Necesista Saber Antes de Formar una Organizacion no-lucrativa
    1.2.1c Grant Writing Guide for Watershed Monitoring and Stewardship
  1.2.2 Web Based Resources for Non-Profit Organizations and Volunteer Groups
    1.2.2.1 Volunteer Tracking [external link]
      1.2.2.1a Volunteer Tracking Form - Example
      1.2.2.1b Calculating the Economic Impact of Volunteers [external link]
    1.2.2.2 Implementing Web-based Digital Technologies for Volunteer Monitoring, Watershed Stewardship Organizations and Agencies
  1.2.3 Managing Volunteers
    1.2.3a Volunteer Management for Citizen Monitors
    1.2.3b Training and Learning for Citizen Monitoring Trainers
    1.2.3c The Clean Water Team 4-Step Training Method
    1.2.3d Effective Training
    1.2.3e How to Host a Clean Water Team Train the Trainer Workshop
  1.2.4 Presenting Watershed Information and Data
    1.2.4.1 A Model for Creating a Watershed Slide Show
    1.2.4a Making Data Meaningful - Part 1
    1.2.4b Making Data Meaningful - Part 2
    1.2.4c Scientifically Speaking: Tips on Using Visual Aids
    1.2.4d Displaying Data Badly
    1.2.4e Graphical Analysis Facilitates Evaluation of Stream-Temperature Monitoring Data
  1.2.5 Starting Out In Volunteer Monitoring
    1.2.5a Designing an Environmental Monitoring Program
      1.2.5.1a Freshwater and Marine Team Field Guide
      1.2.5.1b Manuals for "Georgia Adopt-A-Stream" and "Adopte Un Arroyo" [external link]
      1.2.5.1c Arizona Water Resources Research Center "Field Manual for Water Quality Sampling" & "Manual de Campo para el Muestreo de la Calidad del Agua" [external link]
      1.2.5.2 Volunteer Stream Monitoring Manual [external link]
      1.2.5.3 Volunteer Lake Monitoring Manual [external link]
      1.2.5.3a Citizens Guide to Understanding Lakes
      1.2.5.3b Inland Lakes Manual
      1.2.5.4 Volunteer Wetland Monitoring Manual
      1.2.5.4a Flood Irrigated Pasture Monitoring
      1.2.5.4b Salt Pond Monitoring Manual
      1.2.5.5 Volunteer Estuary Monitoring Manual [external link]
      1.2.5.6 Guidelines and Standard Procedures for Continuous Water-Quality Monitors: Station Operation, Record Computation, and Data Reporting
      1.2.5.7a California Watershed Assessment Manual
      1.2.5.7b Manual para la Evaluación de las Cuencas Hídricas
      1.2.5.8 Wetland Walk Manual A Guide for Citizen Participation
      1.2.5.9 Methods for Inventory and Env. Risk Assessment of Road Drainage Crossings
    1.2.5b Guidance for Preparing Project Assessment and Evaluation Plans (PAEPs)
1.3 Securing a Monitoring Project
  1.3.1 Safety First
    1.3.1.1 Assuring Health, Safety and Access
      1.3.1.1a Citizen Monitoring Safety
      1.3.1.1b Citizen Monitoring Field Conditions
      1.3.1.1c Access Challenges One Page Summary
  1.3.1a National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data Chapter A9: Safety in Field Activities
    1.3.1.2 Action Levels for Blue Green Algae Toxins (Cyanotoxins)
    1.3.1.2a Harmful Algal Blooms Factsheet
  1.3.2 Trespass Issues for Citizen Monitors
    1.3.2.1 Citizen's Rights to California Waterway Use
  1.3.3 CDFW Scientific Collecting Permits [external link]
  1.3.4 Best Management Practices for Those Working in Field Activities
    1.3.4.1 Jobs in the Woods Best Management Practices
    1.3.4.2 Aquatic Invasive Species Best Management Practices
  1.3.5 Monitoring Stations
    1.3.5.1 SWAMP Station Template and Naming Conventions
    1.3.5.2 Example of a Project Specific Site Evaluation Guideline SOP
    1.3.5.3 California County Assessors List 2011
    1.3.5.4a Generic List of Reconnaissance Elements
    1.3.5.4b Primary Site Evaluation Form
    1.3.5.4c Secondary Site Evaluation Form
    1.3.5.4d Reconnaissance Field Site Visit Evaluation Form

Section 2.0 - Field Procedures

2.1 Sample Collection
  2.1.1 Collection of Water Samples (Information Paper)
    2.1.1.2 Collection of Water Samples with Water Displacement and Water Trapping Devices
for Dissolved Oxygen Measurements

Standard Operating Procedure (SOP); step-by-step instructions
    2.1.1.3 Construction and Use of a Syringe Pump Apparatus for Water Sampling (SOP)
    2.1.1.4 SOP Constructing a Bucket Sampler
    2.1.1.5a Use of WhirlPak Sample Containers
  2.1.2 National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data: Chapter A8 Bottom-Materials Samples
    2.1.2.1 Procedure for Collecting Sediment Samples for Pesticide Analysis FSWA016 
2.2 Shipping and Custody
    2.2.1.1 Chain-of-Custody Evaluation Form (SOP)
    2.2.1.2 Use of the 'Chain-of-Custody Evaluation Form' (SOP)
2.3 Field Work Considerations
  2.3.1 Assembling a Field Manual for Water Quality Monitoring (Information Paper)
    2.3.1.1 Assembling a Field Kit for Water Quality Monitoring (SOP)
  2.3.3 Sample Manipulation (Information Paper)
  2.3.4 Field Guide for Surface Water Sample and Data Collection (SOP)
2.4 Protecting Sample Integrity
  2.4.1 Protecting Sample Integrity For Water Quality Monitoring
    2.4.1.1 Pictorial Guide for Water Sampling Using the Clean Hand Dirty Hand Technique

Section 3.0 - “Grab Samples” - Measurements Taken at One Point in a Water Body or in a Container (including Water Quality Fact Sheets)

3.1 Vital Signs: The Basic 5 Water Quality Parameters
  3.1.0 Introduction to Vital Signs
  3.1.1 Dissolved Oxygen Measurement Principles and Methods (Information Paper)
    3.1.1.0 Fact Sheet: Dissolved Oxygen [English] | [Español]
    3.1.1.1 Dissolved Oxygen Measured with a Colorimetric Ampoule
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP); step-by-step instructions
    3.1.1.2 Measurements of Dissolved Oxygen with the Modified Winkler Titration (SOP)
    3.1.1.3 Measurements of Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.) with an Electrode (SOP)
  3.1.2 Temperature Measurements Principles and Methods (Information Paper)
    3.1.2.0 Temperature Fact Sheet   [English] | [Español]
    3.1.2.1 Measurements of Temperature with Bulb and -Min-Max Thermometers (SOP)
    3.1.2.2 Measuring Temperature with a Thermister Thermometer (SOP)
  3.1.3 Conductivity/Salinity Measurement Principles and Methods (Information Paper)
    3.1.3.0 Electrical Conductivity/Salinity Fact Sheet   [English] | [Español]
    3.1.3.1 Measurement of Electrical Conductivity Using a Pocket Meter (SOP)
    3.1.3.2 Measuring Salinity with a Hydrometer (SOP)
    3.1.3.3 Measuring Salinity with a Refractometer (SOP)
  3.1.4 Acidity (pH) Measurement Principles and Methods (Information Paper)
    3.1.4.0 pH Fact Sheet   [English] | [Español]
    3.1.4.1 Measurement of pH with a Liquid Indicator Kit (SOP)
    3.1.4.2 Measurement of pH with Non-Bleeding pH Strips (SOP)
    3.1.4.3 Measurement of pH with a Pocket Meter (SOP)
  3.1.5 Measuring Suspended Solids and Water Column Turbidity (Information Paper)
    3.1.5.0 Turbidity Fact Sheet   [English] | [Español]
    3.1.5.0.a Murky Waters (Schloss 1998)
    3.1.5.1 Water Clarity (Transparency) and Color Using a Secchi Disc (SOP)
    3.1.5.2 Water Clarity (Transparency) Using a Transparency Tube (SOP)
    3.1.5.2.a Transparency Tube Provides Reliable Water-Quality Measurements
    3.1.5.2.b Using Transparency Tube and Total Suspended Solids(TSS) Data to Assess Stream Turbidity
    3.1.5.3 Turbidity Measurement Using the Dual Cylinder Method (SOP)
    3.1.5.4 Turbidity Using a Nephelometer ("Turbidimeter") (SOP)
    3.1.5.7.a Collection and Use of Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
    3.1.5.9 Water Color (Fact Sheet)
    3.1.5.9.a Determination of Apparent Color of Water (SOP)
3.2 Other "Conventional" Water Quality Parameters
  3.2.0 Beyond Vital Signs: Introduction to Other Parameters
  3.2.1 Alkalinity
    3.2.1.1 Measuring Alkalinity 
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP); step-by-step instructions
    3.2.1.2 Alkalinity Protocol-GLOBE
3.3 Nutrients
  3.3.1 Ammonia
    3.3.1.0 Ammonia Fact Sheet   [English] | [Español]
    3.3.1.2 Ammonia Salicylate Kits (SOP)
  3.3.2 Oxidized Nitrogen - Nitrate (NO3) and Nitrite (NO2)
    3.3.2.1 Measuring Nitrate and Nitrite (SOP)
  3.3.3 Phosphorous
    3.3.3.1 Measuring Orthophosphate (SOP)
3.4 Bacteria (Pathogen Indicators)
  3.4.1 Escherichia Coli and Other Coliforms
    3.4.1.0 Introduction to Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) IDEXX Methodologies
    3.4.1.1 E.Coli and Total Coliform Counts Using the Enzyme Substrate Colilert Reagents with QuantiTrays (SOP)
    3.4.1.3 Calculating Geometric Means
    3.4.1.4 Measuring Optic Brighteners in Ambient Water Samples Using a Fluorometer
    3.4.1.5 Bacterial Source Tracking
    3.4.1.5a Optical Brightener Monitoring in Goleta Streams
  3.4.2 Entercoccus
    3.4.2.1 Entercoccus Counts Using Enterolert (SOP)
  3.4.3 Microbial Source Tracking
3.5 Biological Communities Indicators
  3.5.1 The California Streamside Biosurvey 
An Introduction to Using Aquatic Invertebrates as Water Quality Indicators (Protocol, Method and Data Sheets)
  3.5.1
Español
Bio-encuesta para los arroyos de California
    3.5.1a Cover Page 
    3.5.1a
Español
Portada del Bio-encuesta para los arroyos de California
    3.5.1aa
Español
Glosario de Bioencuesta Para Los Arroyos de California
    3.5.1aaa
Español
Hojas de Trabajo de Bioevaluatcion
    3.5.1b Spreadsheet for Streamside Biosurvey Invertebrate Collection Data
    3.5.1c Collecting and Research Take Permits [external link]
    3.5.1d Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Identification Key [external link]
    3.5.1e California Digital Reference Collection of Freshwater Benthic Macro Invertebrate Families (pdf)
    3.5.1f Freshwater Aquatic Invertebrates Tour [external link]
    3.5.1g What Good is a Mayfly? / Para que’ sirve frigonea?
    3.5.1h Relative Sizes of Benthic Macroinvertebrates
    3.5.1h
Español
Tamaños Relativos de Macroinvertebrados Bentónicos
    3.5.1i Stream Insects and Crustaceans
    3.5.1i
Español
Insectos y Crustáceos Acuáticos
    3.5.1j CA Streamside BioSurvey Spreadsheet
    3.5.1k CA Benthic Macro Invertebrate Digital Reference Collection [external link]
  3.5.2 A Bioassessment Primer
    3.5.2a What are Bioassessments?
    3.5.2.1 Collecting Benthic Macroinvertebrate Samples and Associated Physical and Chemical Data for Ambient Bioassessments in California -2007
    3.5.2.1a Introduction to Rapid Bioassessment and Physical Habitat Monitoring Using the SWAMP 2007 Bioassessment Monitoring SOP
    3.5.2.1b Introduction to Using the SWAMP 2007 Bioassessment Monitoring SOP for Collecting Basic Physical Habitat measurements
    3.5.2.2 Elutriation of Sandy Benthic Macro Invertebrate Samples
    3.5.3.1 SOP Freshwater Algae Protocol 7 2011
    3.5.4.1 Collecting Stream Algae Samples and Associated Physical Habitat and Chemical Data for Ambient Bioassessments in California -2009
3.6 Physical Attributes, Including Sediment
  3.6.1 Methods for Particle Size Distribution Analyses (Information Paper)
    3.6.1.0 Sediment Fact Sheet
    3.6.1.1 Protocol (method) for Sorting Beach Sand
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP); step-by-step instructions
  3.6.2 Sediment Information Paper
3.7 Toxicity
  3.7.1 Water Toxicity Tests
    3.7.1.1 Simplified Acute Toxicity Testing Ceriodaphnia Protocol
      Method (including appendices; lab & field data sheets, and a culture log format sheet)
      - Sample Toxicity Test Results (an example filled out data sheet or template)
  3.7.2 Pesticides
    3.7.2.1 Conducting Surface Water Monitoring for Pesticides
    3.7.2.2 Pyrethroids and Water Quality
3.8 Pollution Indicators
  3.8.1 A Citizen Monitors Guide to Disinfectants and Disinfection
    3.8.3.2 A Citizen Monitors Guide to Selenium  Information Paper 
  3.8.4 A Citizen Monitors Guide to Hydrocarbons Information Paper

Section 4.0 - Stream Measurements  

4.1 Flow Discharge
  4.1.1 Methods to Observe, Estimate, or Measure Flow (Information Paper)
    4.1.1.0 Flow Fact Sheet
    4.1.1.2 Low Flow Channel Profile
    4.1.1.3 Measuring Flow Using the Float Method
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP); step-by-step instructions
    4.1.1.4 Measuring Flow Discharge with Velocity Meters (SOP)
    4.1.1.4a Calibration and Maintainence of a Current Meter-USGS
    4.1.1.5 Roughness Characteristics of Natural Channels - Pictorial Guide (External Weblink)
  4.1.2 Flow Information Paper (with graphics and photos)
  4.1.3 Bankfull Determination from wwwclallamnetstreamkeepersassetsappletsBankfull
    4.1.3.1 A Video Guide for Field Identification of Bankfull Stage in the Western United States (External Weblink)
4.2 Visual Observations
  4.2.1 Visual Observations in Streams and Shorelines (Information Paper)
    4.2.1.0 Visual Observations Fact Sheets
    4.2.1.2 Physical/Habitat Quality Forms (SOP)
    4.2.1.3a Stream and Shore Walk Visual Assessment
    4.2.1.3b Stream Habitat Walk Field Data Form Excel File
    4.2.1.4 Stream and Shoreline Photo Documentation  (SOP)
    4.2.1.4a Photo Point Monitoring Handbook Part A Field Procedures
    4.2.1.4b Photo Point Monitoring Handbook Part A2
    4.2.1.4c Photo Point Monitoring Handbook Part B Concepts and Analysis
    4.2.1.4d Photo Point Monitoring Handbook Part B2
    4.2.2.2 Rapid Bioassessment Visual Physical Habitat Assessment
    4.2.2.2a Habitat Assessment Field Data Sheet - High Gradient Streams (EPA)
    4.2.2.2b Habitat Assessment Field Data Sheet - Low Gradient Streams (EPA)
    4.2.2.2c Rapid Bioassessment Visual Physical Habitat Assessment Field Data Form (DFG 1999)
    4.2.2.2c Calidad del Habitat Fisico (Rapid Bioassessment Visual Physical Habitat Assessment Field Data Form in Spanish)
4.3 Trash, Litter and Garbage
  4.3.1 Trash Assessment
    4.3.1.1 Rapid Trash Assessment & Worksheet
    4.3.1.1b Conducting Rapid Trash Assessments
    4.3.1.1c Conducting Rapid Trash Assessments Basic Info
    4.3.1.1d Rapid Trash Assessment Data Forms
    4.3.1.2 The Problem with Marine Debris
    4.3.1.3 National Marine Debris Monitoring Program (NMDMP)
      The Ocean Conservancy's NMDM Program
      NMDMP California Survey Sites
    4.3.1.4 Small Floating Plastic Protocol (Method)
    4.3.1.5 Assess & Monitor Floatable Debris
    4.3.1.6 California’s Participation in International Pellet Watch
    4.3.1.7 Global distribution of Organic Micropollutants in Marine Plastics
4.4 Wildlife
  4.4.1 Birds
    4.4.1.1 Riparian Bird Count Procedure (SOP)
  4.4.2 Amphibians & Reptiles
  4.4.2a California Herps (External Weblink)
  4.4.2b CA NV Amphibian Population Task Force (External Weblink)
    4.4.2.1 Amphibian and Reptile Survey Protocol (SOP) 
    4.4.2.2a Salamander Monitoring Protocols
    4.4.2.2b Simplified Steps for Salamander Monitoring
    4.4.2.3 North American Amphibian Monitoring Program
    4.4.2.4 Salamander Bibliography from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and UC Davis
    4.4.2.5 Frog and Toad Watch
    4.4.2.5   FrogWatch y Monitoreo Ciudadano (Espanol / Spanish)
  4.4.5 An Introduction to Freshwater Mussels as Bioindicators
    4.4.5.1 Status of Freshwater Mussels in California
    4.4.5.2 Sensitive Freshwater Mussel Surveys in the Pacific Southwest Region Assessment of Conservation Status 2009
    4.4.5.3 CA Freshwater Mussels in the Klamath
    4.4.5.4 The Other Clams - Native Freshwater Species of California
    4.4.5.5 Pacific NW Mussel Guide
4.5 Fish Assemblages
  4.5.1 Fish Observations and Estimates
    4.5.1.1 Observing Fish from the Bank
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP); step-by-step instructions
    4.5.1.2 Snorkeling Surveys (SOP)
4.6 Mapping of Creek Attributes
  4.6.1 Multi-parameter Creekwalks
  4.6.2 Specialized Creekwalks  
    4.6.2.1a Fish Passage Evaluations
    4.6.2.1b Fish Passage Evaluations Errata
4.7 Streambed Morphology
  4.7.3 Large Woody Debris Survey Method Manual
  4.7.4 Fish Habitat Survey (SOP)
    4.7.4.1 Stream and Habitat Classification System for Northern California Streams
    4.7.4.2 Impact of Environmental Factors on Fish Distribution Assessed in Rangeland Streams
4.8 Streambed Substrate Assessments
  4.8.0 Sediment Transport Primer (External Weblink)
  4.8.1 Pebble Count Procedures (SOP)
  4.8.1a Sources of Variability in Conducting Pebble Counts
    4.8.1.1 Gravelometers: Gravel Templates for Pebble Counting in Gravel-Bed Streams (Information Paper)
    4.8.1.2 Size-Class Pebble Count Analyzer V1a 2002 - Excel Spreadsheet
    4.8.1.3 Size-Class Pebble Count Analyzer 2007 - Excel Spreadsheet
    4.8.1.4 Zig-Zag Pebble Count Analyzer V1 2001 - Excel Spreadsheet
  4.8.3 Measuring V-star: Residual Pool Volume (SOP)
  4.8.4 Gravel Permeability (SOP)
4.9 Riparian Vegetation
  4.9.0 Vegetation Monitoring Procedure (SOP)
  4.9.0a Measuring and Monitoring Plant Populations
  4.9.0b University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension's Watershed Watch Aquatic Plant Survey Manual
  4.9.1 Stream Shade Canopy Cover Monitoring  Methods
    4.9.1.1 Measuring Canopy Cover Using a Seventeen Point Convex Densiometer
    4.9.1.2 Modifying a Standard Spherical Convex Densiometer to a 17-Point Spherical Convex Densiometer
    4.9.1.3 New Instruction Label for a Seventeen Point Convex Densiometer
    4.9.1.4 Using and Mounting a Seventeen Point Convex Densiometer on a Tripod
  4.9.4 Riparian Forest Handbook: Appreciating and Evaluating Stream Side Forests
    4.9.4.1 California Rapid Assessment Method (External Weblink)
    4.9.4.2a Proper Functioning Condition
    4.9.4.2b Riparian Proper Functioning Condition Helpful Reading Links
    4.9.4.5 Riparian and Wetland Soil Classification

Section 5.0 - Measurements Taken in a Watershed  

5.1 Rainfall and Runoff
  5.1.1 Methods to Measure Rainfall
  5.1.1a CoCoRaHS Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network
    5.1.1.1 Rainfall Monitoring 
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) containing step-by-step instructions
  5.1.2 Tools For Runoff Volume Monitoring  (SOP)
  5.1.2a USEPA NPDES Storm Water Sampling Guidance Document (External Weblink)
    5.1.2.1 Stormwater Runoff
    5.1.2.2 Pesticides in Nursey Runoff
  5.1.3 Runoff Coefficient Fact Sheet
5.2 Sediment
  5.2.1 Sediment Sources and Transport Potential
    5.2.1.0 Sediment Sources, Transport and Impact (Fact Sheets)
    5.2.1.1 Upslope Erosion Inventory Manual
  5.2.2 Sampling Surface and Subsurface Particle Size Distributions
  5.2.2a Sampling Surface and Subsurface Particle Size Distributions
  5.2.2b Sampling Surface and Subsurface Particle Size Distributions - Chapter 1
  5.2.2c Sampling Surface and Subsurface Particle Size Distributions - Chapter 2
  5.2.2d Sampling Surface and Subsurface Particle Size Distributions - Chapter 3
  5.2.2e Sampling Surface and Subsurface Particle Size Distributions - Chapter 4
  5.2.3 Fluvial Sediments
  5.2.3a Fluvial Sediment Concepts
  5.2.3b Field Methods for Measurement of Fluvial Sediment
  5.2.3c Computation of Fluvial-Sediment Discharge
  5.3.4 Meteorology
  5.3.4a Glossary of Meteorological Terms
    5.3.4.1a Beaufort Wind Force Scale- Land Based
    5.3.4.1b Two Beaufort Wind Force Scales for Lakes and Seas

Section 6.0 - Geographic Information for Watershed Use (GIS & GPS)

6.1 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) & Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Support
  6.1.1 Topographic Maps
    6.1.1.1 How to Read a Topographic Map
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP): step-by-step instructions
    6.1.1.2 How to Derive Coordinates from a Topographic Map (SOP)
  6.1.2 Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
    6.1.2.0 GPS Fact Sheet
    6.1.2.1 GLOBE GPS Measurement Protocol (SOP)
    6.1.2.2 Field Mapping GPS Using GARMIN GPS 12XL and ArcView (SOP)
    6.1.2.3 Use of Handheld PDA Units at DFG (SOP)
    6.1.2.4 Instructions for Collecting Information with Global Positioning Systems for the California Natural Diversity Database
    – GPS Glossary

Section 7.0 - Programmatic Quality Assurance and Quality Control

7.1 Quality Assurance Project Plans (QAPP)
  Please refer to our "Quality Assurance and Quality Control" web page for information and a template for Quality Assurance Project Plans.
7.1a Data Quality: Tips for Getting It, Keeping It, and Proving It!
  7.1.2 The Volunteer Monitor's Guide to Quality Assurance Project Plans
  7.1.2b SWAMP QAPP Advisor - A system to assist in writing Quality Assurance Project Plans (QAPPs)
7.2 Quality Assurance and Quality Control Tools for Monitoring Projects Training
  7.2.1 Guidance on Environmental Data Verification and Validation
7.3 Quality Assurance and Quality Control Communication
  7.3.1 Data Elements for Reporting Water Quality Monitoring Results for Chemical, Biological, Toxicological, and Microbiological Analytes
7.4 Quality Systems Assessment
  7.4.1 Quality Systems Assessment for Citizen Water Quality Monitoring Field Activities (SOP)
  7.4.1a Quality Systems Assessment for Citizen Water Quality Monitoring Field Activities-Appendix A (FORM)

Section 8.0 - Data Quality Management (DQM)

8.1 The DQM System
  8.1.1 DQM Overview
    8.1.1.0 Data Quality Management (DQM) Fact Sheet
    8.1.1.1 How to Find the Guidance and Tools You Need
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) containing step-by-step instructions
8.2 DQM Contents
  8.2.1 Performance-Based Methodology
  8.2.2 Planning Environmental Monitoring
    Tailoring Data Quality Objectives to Specific Questions
  8.2.3 Good Data Made Tangible
  8.2.4 Representatives of Environmental Monitoring Data
  8.2.5 Sampling Design Principles

Section 9.0 - Staff and Volunteers Role-Specific DQM Materials

9.1 Role of the Member of the Public
    9.1.1.0 Data Quality Fact Sheet
9.2 Role of the Field Operators
    9.2.1.1 Use of the DQM Field Data Sheet for Water Quality Monitoring
Standard Operating Procedure (step-by-step instructions)
    9.2.1.2 Use of the DQM Calibration and Accuracy Checks Data Sheet
Standard Operating Procedure (step-by-step instructions)
9.3 Role of Trainer & QA Person
  9.3.1  Role and Responsibilities of the Trainer (Information Paper)
9.4 Role of Technical Leader
  9.4.1 Project Planning; Lining Up Your Troops
    9.4.1.1 Use of the DQM Generic Monitoring Task List Template
Standard Operating Procedure (step-by-step instructions)

Appendices

A Glossary for the Clean Water Team (CWT) Compendium (how-to-manuals for watershed monitoring and assessment)
B Sitio Web en Español  (Spanish Weblinks)

Notes about the Contents

CWT Guidance documents, or 'how-to' manuals, include Fact Sheets (presenting ecological significance and regulatory benchmark), Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs; step by step instructions), and Information Paper (method “menus” and principles). They all have an identifier (number ID) that corresponds to the section number in the compendium. Essentially, items are numbered by Section (first digit), Group (second digit), Subject or Parameter (third digit) and specific instructions or facts (fourth digit). This numbering system allows for finding a desired guidance by subject matter. The structure is intended to maintain the same IP and SOP numbers for the long haul, and it also allows for addition of new items at the end of each level without disrupting the numbering system.

Please read section 1.1.1 (Introduction) for further information and advice on how to use the compendium.