CHAPTER 3: WATER QUALITY OBJECTIVES
The overall goals of water quality regulation are to protect and maintain thriving aquatic ecosystems and the resources those systems provide to society and to accomplish these in an economically and socially sound manner. California's regulatory framework uses water quality objectives both to define appropriate levels of environmental quality and to control activities that can adversely affect aquatic systems.
There are two types of objectives: narrative and numerical. Narrative objectives present general descriptions of water quality that must be attained through pollutant control measures and watershed management. They also serve as the basis for the development of detailed numerical objectives.
Historically, numerical objectives were developed primarily to limit the adverse effect of pollutants in the water column. Two decades of regulatory experience and extensive research in environmental science have demonstrated that beneficial uses are not fully protected unless pollutant levels in all parts of the aquatic system are also monitored and controlled. The Regional Board is actively working towards an integrated set of objectives, including numerical sediment objectives, that will ensure the protection of all current and potential beneficial uses.
Numerical objectives typically describe pollutant concentrations, physical/chemical conditions of the water itself, and the toxicity of the water to aquatic organisms. These objectives are designed to represent the maximum amount of pollutants that can remain in the water column without causing any adverse effect on organisms using the aquatic system as habitat, on people consuming those organisms or water, and on other current or potential beneficial uses (as described in Chapter 2).
The technical bases of the region's water quality objectives include extensive biological, chemical, and physical partitioning information reported in the scientific literature, national water quality criteria, studies conducted by other agencies, and information gained from local environmental and discharge monitoring (as described in Chapter 6). The Regional Board recognizes that limited information exists in some cases, making it difficult to establish definitive numerical objectives, but the Regional Board believes its conservative approach to setting objectives has been proper. In addition to the technical review, the overall feasibility of reaching objectives in terms of technological, institutional, economic, and administrative factors is considered at many different stages of objective derivation and implementation of the water quality control plan.
Together, the narrative and numerical objectives define the level of water quality that shall be maintained within the region. In instances where water quality is better than that prescribed by the objectives, the state Antidegradation Policy applies (State Board Resolution 68-16: Statement of Policy With Respect to Maintaining High Quality of Waters in California). This policy is aimed at protecting relatively uncontaminated aquatic systems where they exist and preventing further degradation. The state’s Antidegradation Policy is consistent with the federal Antidegradation Policy, as interpreted by the State Water Resources Control Board in State Board Order No. 86-17.
When uncontrollable water quality factors result in the degradation of water quality beyond the levels or limits established herein as water quality objectives, the Regional Board will conduct a case-by-case analysis of the benefits and costs of preventing further degradation. In cases where this analysis indicates that beneficial uses will be adversely impacted by allowing further degradation, then the Regional Board will not allow controllable water quality factors to cause any further degradation of water quality. Controllable water quality factors are those actions, conditions, or circumstances resulting from human activities that may influence the quality of the waters of the state and that may be reasonably controlled.
The Regional Board establishes and enforces waste discharge requirements for point and nonpoint source of pollutants at levels necessary to meet numerical and narrative water quality objectives. In setting waste discharge requirements, the Regional Board will consider, among other things, the potential impact on beneficial uses within the area of influence of the discharge, the existing quality of receiving waters, and the appropriate water quality objectives.
In general, the objectives are intended to govern the concentration of pollutant constituents in the main water mass. The same objectives cannot be applied at or immediately adjacent to submerged effluent discharge structures. Zones of initial dilution within which higher concentrations can be tolerated will be allowed for such discharges.
For a submerged buoyant discharge, characteristic of most municipal and industrial wastes that are released from submerged outfalls, the momentum of the discharge and its initial buoyancy act together to produce turbulent mixing. Initial dilution in this case is completed when the diluting wastewater ceases to rise in the water column and first begins to spread horizontally.
For shallow water submerged discharges, surface discharges, and nonbuoyant discharges, characteristic of cooling water wastes and some individual discharges, turbulent mixing results primarily from the momentum of discharge. Initial dilution, in these cases, is considered to be completed when the momentum-induced velocity of the discharge ceases to produce significant mixing of the waste, or the diluting plume reaches a fixed distance from the discharge to be specified by the Regional Board, whichever results in the lower estimate for initial dilution.
Compliance with water quality objectives may be prohibitively expensive or technically impossible in some cases. The Regional Board will consider modification of specific water quality objectives as long as the discharger can demonstrate that the alternate objective will protect existing beneficial uses, is scientifically defensible, and is consistent with the state Antidegradation Policy. This exception clause properly indicates that the Regional Board will conservatively compare benefits and costs in these cases because of the difficulty in quantifying beneficial uses.
These water quality objectives are considered necessary to protect the present and potential beneficial uses described in Chapter 2 of this Plan and to protect existing high quality waters of the state. These objectives will be achieved primarily through establishing and enforcing waste discharge requirements and by implementing this water quality control plan.
The provisions of the State Board's "Water Quality Control Plan for Ocean Waters of California" (Ocean Plan) and "Water Quality Control Plan for Control of Temperature in the Coastal and Interstate Waters and Enclosed Bays and Estuaries of California" (Thermal Plan) and any revision to them will apply to ocean waters. These plans describe objectives and effluent limitations for ocean waters.
The following objectives apply to all surface waters within the region, except the Pacific Ocean.
Table 3-1 provides a summary of the bacterial water quality objectives and identifies the sources of those objectives. Table 3-2 summarizes U.S. EPA's water quality criteria for water contact recreation based on the frequency of use a particular area receives. These criteria will be used to differentiate between pollution sources or to supplement objectives for water contact recreation.
18.104.22.168 Implementation Provisions for Water Contact Recreation Bacteria Objectives
Water quality objectives for bacteria in Table 3-1 shall be strictly applied except when otherwise provided for in a TMDL. In the context of a TMDL, the Water Board may implement the objectives in fresh and marine waters by using a “reference system and antidegradation approach” as discussed below. Implementation of water quality objectives for bacteria using a “reference system and antidegradation approach” requires control of bacteria from all anthropogenic sources so that bacteriological water quality is consistent with that of a reference system. A reference system is defined as an area (e.g., a subwatershed or catchment) and associated monitoring point(s) that is minimally impacted by human activities that potentially affect bacteria densities in the reference receiving water body.
This approach recognizes that there are natural sources of bacteria (defined as non-anthropogenic sources) that may cause or contribute to exceedances of the objectives for indicator bacteria. It also avoids requiring treatment or diversion of water bodies or treatment of natural sources of bacteria from undeveloped areas. Such requirements, if imposed by the Water Board, could have the potential to adversely affect valuable aquatic life and wildlife beneficial uses supported by water bodies in the region.
Under the reference system approach, a certain frequency of exceedance of the single-sample objectives shall be permitted. The permitted number of exceedances shall be based on the observed exceedance frequency in a selected reference system(s) or the targeted water body, whichever is less. The “reference system and antidegradation approach” ensures that bacteriological water quality is at least as good as that of a reference system and that no degradation of existing bacteriological water quality is permitted where existing bacteriological water quality is better than that of the selected reference system(s).The appropriateness of this approach, the specific exceedance frequencies to be permitted under it, and the permittees to whom it would apply will be evaluated within the context of TMDL development for a specific water body, and decided by the Water Board when considering adoption of a TMDL. These implementation provisions may only be used within the context of a TMDL addressing municipal stormwater (including discharges regulated under statewide municipal NPDES waste discharge requirements), discharges from confined animal facilities, and discharges from nonpoint sources.
Many pollutants can accumulate on particles, in sediment, or bioaccumulate in fish and other aquatic organisms. Controllable water quality factors shall not cause a detrimental increase in concentrations of toxic substances found in bottom sediments or aquatic life. Effects on aquatic organisms, wildlife, and human health will be considered.
Waters shall not contain biostimulatory substances in concentrations that promote aquatic growths to the extent that such growths cause nuisance or adversely affect beneficial uses. Changes in chlorophyll a and associated phytoplankton communities follow complex dynamics that are sometimes associated with a discharge of biostimulatory substances. Irregular and extreme levels of chlorophyll a or phytoplankton blooms may indicate exceedance of this objective and require investigation.
Waters shall be free of coloration that causes nuisance or adversely affects beneficial uses.
For all tidal waters, the following objectives shall apply:In the Bay:
|Downstream of Carquinez Bridge||5.0 mg/l minimum|
|Upstream of Carquinez Bridge||7.0 mg/l minimum|
For nontidal waters, the following objectives shall apply:Waters designated as:
|Cold water habitat||7.0 mg/l minimum|
|Warm water habitat||5.0 mg/l minimum|
The median dissolved oxygen concentration for any three consecutive months shall not be less than 80 percent of the dissolved oxygen content at saturation.
Dissolved oxygen is a general index of the state of the health of receiving waters. Although minimum concentrations of 5 mg/l and 7 mg/l are frequently used as objectives to protect fish life, higher concentrations are generally desirable to protect sensitive aquatic forms. In areas unaffected by waste discharges, a level of about 85 percent of oxygen saturation exists. A three-month median objective of 80 percent of oxygen saturation allows for some degradation from this level, but still requires a consistently high oxygen content in the receiving water.
Waters shall not contain floating material, including solids, liquids, foams, and scum, in concentrations that cause nuisance or adversely affect beneficial uses.
Waters shall not contain oils, greases, waxes, or other materials in concentrations that result in a visible film or coating on the surface of the water or on objects in the water, that cause nuisance, or that otherwise adversely affect beneficial uses.
All waters shall be maintained free of toxic substances in concentrations that are lethal to or that produce significant alterations in population or community ecology or receiving water biota. In addition, the health and life history characteristics of aquatic organisms in waters affected by controllable water quality factors shall not differ significantly from those for the same waters in areas unaffected by controllable water quality factors.
The pH shall not be depressed below 6.5 nor raised above 8.5. This encompasses the pH range usually found in waters within the basin. Controllable water quality factors shall not cause changes greater than 0.5 units in normal ambient pH levels.
Radionuclides shall not be present in concentrations that result in the accumulation of radionuclides in the food web to an extent that presents a hazard to human, plant, animal, or aquatic life. Waters designated for use as domestic or municipal supply shall not contain concentrations of radionuclides in excess of the limits specified in Table 4 of Section 64443 (Radioactivity) of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations (CCR), which is incorporated by reference into this Plan. This incorporation is prospective, including future changes to the incorporated provisions as the changes take effect (see Table 3-5).
Controllable water quality factors shall not increase the total dissolved solids or salinity of waters of the state so as to adversely affect beneficial uses, particularly fish migration and estuarine habitat.
The suspended sediment load and suspended sediment discharge rate of surface waters shall not be altered in such a manner as to cause nuisance or adversely affect beneficial uses.
Controllable water quality factors shall not cause a detrimental increase in the concentrations of toxic pollutants in sediments or aquatic life.
Waters shall not contain substances in concentrations that result in the deposition of material that cause nuisance or adversely affect beneficial uses.
Waters shall not contain suspended material in concentrations that cause nuisance or adversely affect beneficial uses.
All water shall be free from dissolved sulfide concentrations above natural background levels. Sulfide occurs in Bay muds as a result of bacterial action on organic matter in an anaerobic environment.
Concentrations of only a few hundredths of a milligram per liter can cause a noticeable odor or be toxic to aquatic life. Violation of the sulfide objective will reflect violation of dissolved oxygen objectives as sulfides cannot exist to a significant degree in an oxygenated environment.
Waters shall not contain taste- or odor-producing substances in concentrations that impart undesirable tastes or odors to fish flesh or other edible products of aquatic origin, that cause nuisance, or that adversely affect beneficial uses.
Temperature objectives for enclosed bays and estuaries are as specified in the "Water Quality Control Plan for Control of Temperature in the Coastal and Interstate Waters and Enclosed Bays of California," including any revisions to the plan.
In addition, the following temperature objectives apply to surface waters:
- The natural receiving water temperature of inland surface waters shall not be altered unless it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Regional Board that such alteration in temperature does not adversely affect beneficial uses.
- The temperature of any cold or warm freshwater habitat shall not be increased by more than 5°F (2.8°C) above natural receiving water temperature
All waters shall be maintained free of toxic substances in concentrations that are lethal to or that produce other detrimental responses in aquatic organisms. Detrimental responses include, but are not limited to, decreased growth rate and decreased reproductive success of resident or indicator species. There shall be no acute toxicity in ambient waters. Acute toxicity is defined as a median of less than 90 percent survival, or less than 70 percent survival, 10 percent of the time, of test organisms in a 96-hour static or continuous flow test.
There shall be no chronic toxicity in ambient waters. Chronic toxicity is a detrimental biological effect on growth rate, reproduction, fertilization success, larval development, population abundance, community composition, or any other relevant measure of the health of an organism, population, or community.
Attainment of this objective will be determined by analyses of indicator organisms, species diversity, population density, growth anomalies, or toxicity tests (including those described in Chapter 4), or other methods selected by the Water Board. The Water Board will also consider other relevant information and numeric criteria and guidelines for toxic substances developed by other agencies as appropriate.
The health and life history characteristics of aquatic organisms in waters affected by controllable water quality factors shall not differ significantly from those for the same waters in areas unaffected by controllable water quality factors.
Waters shall be free of changes in turbidity that cause nuisance or adversely affect beneficial uses. Increases from normal background light penetration or turbidity relatable to waste discharge shall not be greater than 10 percent in areas where natural turbidity is greater than 50 NTU.
The discharge of wastes shall not cause receiving waters to contain concentrations of un-ionized ammonia in excess of the following limits (in mg/l as N):
|Maximum, Central Bay (as depicted in Figure 2-5) and upstream||0.16|
|Maximum, Lower Bay (as depicted in Figures 2-6 and 2-7):||0.4|
The intent of this objective is to protect against the chronic toxic effects of ammonia in the receiving waters. An ammonia objective is needed for the following reasons:
- Ammonia (specifically un-ionized ammonia) is a demonstrated toxicant. Ammonia is generally accepted as one of the principle toxicants in municipal waste discharges. Some industries also discharge significant quantities of ammonia.
- Exceptions to the effluent toxicity limitations in Chapter 4 of the Plan allow for the discharge of ammonia in toxic amounts. In most instances, ammonia will be diluted or degraded to a nontoxic state fairly rapidly. However, this does not occur in all cases, the South Bay being a notable example. The ammonia limit is recommended in order to preclude any build up of ammonia in the receiving water.
- A more stringent maximum objective is desirable for the northern reach of the Bay for the protection of the migratory corridor running through Central Bay, San Pablo Bay, and upstream reaches.
Surface waters shall not contain concentrations of chemical constituents in amounts that adversely affect any designated beneficial use. Water quality objectives for selected toxic pollutants for surface waters are given in Tables 3-3, 3-3A, 3-3B, 3-3C, 3-4, and 3-4A.
The Water Board intends to work towards the derivation of site-specific objectives for the Bay-Delta estuarine system. Site-specific objectives to be considered by the Water Board shall be developed in accordance with the provisions of the federal Clean Water Act, the State Water Code, State Board water quality control plans, and this Plan. These site-specific objectives will take into consideration factors such as all available scientific information and monitoring data and the latest U.S. EPA guidance, and local environmental conditions and impacts caused by bioaccumulation. Pending the adoption of site-specific objectives, the objectives in Tables 3-3 and 3-4 apply throughout the region except as otherwise indicated in the tables or when site-specific objectives for the pollutant parameter have been adopted. Site-specific objectives have been adopted for copper in segments of San Francisco Bay (see Figure 7.2.1-01), for nickel in South San Francisco Bay (Table 3-3A), and for cyanide in all San Francisco Bay segments (Table 3-3C). Objectives for mercury that apply to San Francisco Bay are listed in Table 3-3B. Objectives for mercury that apply to Walker Creek, Soulajule Reservoir, and their tributaries, and to waters of the Guadalupe River watershed are listed in Table 3-4A.
South San Francisco Bay south of the Dumbarton Bridge is a unique, water-quality-limited, hydrodynamic and biological environment that merits continued special attention by the Water Board. Controlling urban and upland runoff sources is critical to the success of maintaining water quality in this portion of the Bay. Site-specific water quality objectives have been adopted for dissolved copper and nickel in this Bay segment. Site-specific objectives may be appropriate for other pollutants of concern, but this determination will be made on a case-by-case basis, and after it has been demonstrated that all other reasonable treatment, source control and pollution prevention measures have been exhausted. The Water Board will determine whether revised water quality objectives and/or effluent limitations are appropriate based on sound technical information and scientific studies, stakeholder input, and the need for flexibility to address priority problems in the watershed.
At a minimum, surface waters designated for use as domestic or municipal supply (MUN) shall not contain concentrations of constituents in excess of the maximum (MCLs) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) specified in the following provisions of Title 22, which are incorporated by reference into this plan: Table 64431-A (Inorganic Chemicals) of Section 64431, and Table 64433.2-A (Fluoride) of Section 64433.2, Table 64444-A (Organic Chemicals) of Section 64444, and Table 64449-A (SMCLs-Consumer Acceptance Limits) and 64449-B (SMCLs-Ranges) of Section 64449. This incorporation-by-reference is prospective, including future changes to the incorporated provisions as the changes take effect. Table 3-5 contains water quality objectives for municipal supply, including the MCLs contained in various sections of Title 22 as of the adoption of this plan.
Groundwater objectives consist primarily of narrative objectives combined with a limited number of numerical objectives. Additionally, the Water Board will establish basin- and/or site-specific numerical groundwater objectives as necessary. For example, the Water Board has groundwater basin-specific objectives for the Alameda Creek watershed above Niles to include the Livermore-Amador Valley as shown in Table 3-7.
The maintenance of existing high quality of groundwater (i.e., "background") is the primary groundwater objective.
In addition, at a minimum, groundwater shall not contain concentrations of bacteria, chemical constituents, radioactivity, or substances producing taste and odor in excess of the objectives described below unless naturally occurring background concentrations are greater. Under existing law, the Water Board regulates waste discharges to land that could affect water quality, including both groundwater and surface water quality. Waste discharges that reach groundwater are regulated to protect both groundwater and any surface water in continuity with groundwater. Waste discharges that affect groundwater that is in continuity with surface water cannot cause violations of any applicable surface water standards.
In groundwater with a beneficial use of municipal and domestic supply, the median of the most probable number of coliform organisms over any seven-day period shall be less than 1.1 most probable number per 100 milliliters (MPN/100 mL) (based on multiple tube fermentation technique; equivalent test results based on other analytical techniques as specified in the National Primary Drinking Water Regulation, 40 CFR, Part 141.21 (f), revised June 10, 1992, are acceptable).
All groundwater shall be maintained free of organic and inorganic chemical constituents in concentrations that adversely affect beneficial uses. To evaluate compliance with water quality objectives, the Water Board will consider all relevant and scientifically valid evidence, including relevant and scientifically valid numerical criteria and guidelines developed and/or published by other agencies and organizations (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), the State Water Board, California Department of Health Services (DHS), U.S. Food and Drug Administration, National Academy of Sciences, California Environmental Protection Agency's (Cal/EPA) Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Cal/EPA Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), and other appropriate organizations.)
At a minimum, groundwater designated for use as domestic or municipal supply (MUN) shall not contain concentrations of constituents in excess of the maximum (MCLs) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) specified in the following provisions of Title 22, which are incorporated by reference into this plan: Tables 64431-A (Inorganic Chemicals) of Section 64431, Table 64433.2-A (Fluoride) of Section 64433.2, and Table 64444-A (Organic Chemicals) of Section 64444. This incorporation-by-reference is prospective, including future changes to the incorporated provisions as the changes take effect. (See Table 3-5.)
Groundwater with a beneficial use of agricultural supply shall not contain concentrations of chemical constituents in amounts that adversely affect such beneficial use. In determining compliance with this objective, the Water Board will consider as evidence relevant and scientifically valid water quality goals from sources such as the Food and Agricultural Organizations of the United Nations; University of California Cooperative Extension, Committee of Experts; and McKee and Wolf's "Water Quality Criteria," as well as other relevant and scientifically valid evidence. At a minimum, groundwater designated for use as agricultural supply (AGR) shall not contain concentrations of constituents in excess of the levels specified in Table 3-6.
Groundwater with a beneficial use of freshwater replenishment shall not contain concentrations of chemicals in amounts that will adversely affect the beneficial use of the receiving surface water.
Groundwater with a beneficial use of industrial service supply or industrial process supply shall not contain pollutant levels that impair current or potential industrial uses.
At a minimum, groundwater designated for use as domestic or municipal supply (MUN) shall not contain concentrations of radionuclides in excess of the MCLs specified in Table 4 (Radioactivity) of Section 64443 of Title 22, which is incorporated by reference into this plan. This incorporation-by-reference is prospective, including future changes to the incorporated provisions as the changes take effect. (See Table 3-5.)
Groundwater designated for use as domestic or municipal supply (MUN) shall not contain taste- or odor-producing substances in concentrations that cause a nuisance or adversely affect beneficial uses. At a minimum, groundwater designated for use as domestic or municipal supply shall not contain concentrations in excess of the SMCLs specified in Tables 64449-A (Secondary MCLs-Consumer Acceptance Limits) and 64449-B (Secondary MCLs-Ranges) of Section 64449 of Title 22, which is incorporated by reference into this plan. This incorporation-by-reference is prospective, including future changes to the incorporated provisions as the changes take effect. (See Table 3-5.)
The objectives contained in the State Water Board's 1995 "Water Quality Control Plan for the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary" and any revisions thereto shall apply to the waters of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and adjacent waters as specified in that plan.
The water quality objectives contained in Table 3-7 apply to the surface and groundwaters of the Alameda Creek watershed above Niles.
Wastewater discharges that cause the surface water limits in Table 3-7 to be exceeded may be allowed if they are part of an overall waterwastewater resource operational program developed by those agencies affected and approved by the Water Board.